In 1825, Upper Peru became the autonomous republic of Bolivia.
In 1862, the Confederate ironclad CSS Arkansas was scuttled by its crew on the Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, La., to prevent capture by the Union.
In 1926, Gertrude Ederle became the first woman to swim the English Channel, arriving in Kingsdown, England, from France in 14 1/2 hours.
In 1930, New York State Supreme Court Justice Joseph Force Crater went missing after leaving a Manhattan restaurant; his disappearance remains a mystery.
In 1942, Queen Wilhemina of the Netherlands became the first reigning queen to address a joint session of Congress, telling lawmakers that despite Nazi occupation, her people’s motto remained, “No surrender.”
In 1961, Soviet cosmonaut Gherman Titov became the second man to orbit Earth as he flew aboard Vostok 2.
In 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act.
In 1973, former Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista, 72, died in exile in Spain. Entertainer Stevie Wonder was seriously injured in a car accident in North Carolina.
In 1978, Pope Paul VI died at Castel Gandolfo at age 80.
In 1988, an attempt by New York City police to enforce a curfew in Tompkins Square Park triggered a melee that left 52 people injured and led to the filing of more than 110 claims of police brutality.
In 1993, Louis Freeh won Senate confirmation to be FBI director.
Ten years ago: Actor Arnold Schwarzenegger used an appearance on NBC’s “The Tonight Show with Jay Leno” to announce his successful bid to replace California Gov. Gray Davis. The same day, Lt. Gov. Cruz Bustamante (boost-ah-MAHN’-tay) said he was entering the recall race as well. Israel freed 334 Palestinian prisoners in a bid to jump-start peace efforts, but the gesture fell flat among Palestinians. Record-breaking heat, already blamed for three dozen deaths, continued to torment Europe.
Five years ago: The government declared that Army scientist Bruce Ivins was solely responsible for the anthrax attacks that killed five and rattled the nation in 2001. (Ivins had committed suicide on July 29.) A U.S. military jury convicted Osama bin Laden’s former driver, Salim Hamdan (sah-LEEM’ hahm-DAHN’), of supporting terrorism in the first war crimes trial at Guantanamo Bay (however, the jury imposed a surprisingly light 5 1/2-year sentence, making Hamdan eligible for parole in five months; the U.S. later transferred Hamdan to his home country of Yemen, which released him in January 2009.) President George W. Bush, on his Asia tour, met with South Korean President Lee Myung-bak; Bush then traveled to Thailand, where he met with Prime Minister Samak Sundaravej (sah-MAK’ sun-TAH’-rah-ved).
One year ago: Syria’s prime minister, Riad Hijab, defected two months after being forced into the position by President Bashar Assad. Marvin Hamlisch, 68, who composed or arranged the scores for dozens of movies including “The Sting” and the Broadway smash “A Chorus Line,” died in Los Angeles. Art critic and historian Robert Hughes, 74, died in New York.
Today’s Birthdays: Jazz musician Charlie Haden is 76. Actor-director Peter Bonerz is 75. Actress Louise Sorel is 73. Actor Michael Anderson Jr. is 70. Actor Ray Buktenica is 70. Actor Dorian Harewood is 63. Actress Catherine Hicks is 62. Rock singer Pat MacDonald (Timbuk 3) is 61. Country musician Mark DuFresne (Confederate Railroad) is 60. Actress Stepfanie Kramer is 57. Actress Faith Prince is 56. Rhythm-and-blues singer Randy DeBarge is 55. Actor Leland Orser is 53. Country singers Peggy and Patsy Lynn are 49. Basketball Hall of Famer David Robinson is 48. Actor Jeremy Ratchford is 48. Country singer Lisa Stewart is 45. Movie writer-director M. Night Shyamalan (SHAH’-mah-lahn) is 43. Actress Merrin Dungey is 42. Singer Geri Halliwell is 41. Actor Jason O’Mara is 41. Singer-actor David Campbell is 40. Actress Vera Farmiga is 40. Actress Ever (cq) Carradine is 39. Actress Soleil (soh-LAY’) Moon Frye is 37. Actress Melissa George is 37. Rock singer Travis McCoy (Gym Class Heroes) is 32. Actor Leslie Odom Jr. is 32. Actress Romola Garai is 31. Rock musician Eric Roberts (Gym Class Heroes) is 29.