In 1312, England’s King Edward III was born at Windsor Castle.
In 1789, Benjamin Franklin wrote in a letter to a friend, Jean-Baptiste Leroy: "In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.”
In 1849, voters in California ratified the state’s original constitution.
In 1909, 259 men and boys were killed when fire erupted inside a coal mine in Cherry, Ill.
In 1927, the Holland Tunnel opened to the public, providing access between lower Manhattan and New Jersey beneath the Hudson River.
In 1937, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, formed exclusively for radio broadcasting, made its debut.
In 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed a measure lowering the minimum draft age from 21 to 18.
In 1956, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down laws calling for racial segregation on public city and state buses.
In 1969, speaking in Des Moines, Iowa, Vice President Spiro T. Agnew accused network television news departments of bias and distortion, and urged viewers to lodge complaints.
In 1971, the U.S. space probe Mariner 9 went into orbit around Mars.
In 1974, Karen Silkwood, a technician and union activist at the Kerr-McGee Cimarron plutonium plant near Crescent, Okla., died in a car crash while on her way to meet a reporter.
In 1985, some 23,000 residents of Armero, Colombia, died when a volcanic mudslide buried the city.
Ten years ago: Claiming Iraq was seeking the "path of peace,” Saddam Hussein’s government agreed to the return of international weapons inspectors.
U.S. Roman Catholic bishops overwhelmingly approved a compromise sex abuse policy after the Vatican demanded they make changes to balance fairness to priests with compassion for victims. Jewish Defense League leader Irv Rubin died nine days after what authorities said was a suicide attempt in a Los Angeles jail; he was 57.
Five years ago: Pakistani opposition leader Benazir Bhutto (BEN’-uh-zeer BOO’-toh) demanded the resignation of U.S.-backed President Gen. Pervez Musharraf (pur-VEHZ’ moo-SHAH’-ruhv), dashing Western hopes the two would form an alliance to confront strengthening Islamic extremists. French rail workers went on a nine-day strike over President Nicolas Sarkozy’s (sahr-koh-ZEEZ’) bid to strip away labor protections. CC Sabathia won the AL Cy Young Award to become the first Cleveland pitcher in 35 years to earn the honor.
One year ago: President Barack Obama dove into a day of summit diplomacy in his home state of Hawaii as he gathered with leaders of 20 other nations of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. A day after Silvio Berlusconi reluctantly resigned as Italy’s premier, economist Mario Monti accepted the monumental task of trying to form a new government that could rescue Italy from financial ruin.
Today’s Birthdays: Actress Madeleine Sherwood is 90. Journalist-author Peter Arnett is 78. Producer-director Garry Marshall is 78. Actor Jimmy Hawkins is 71. Country singer-songwriter Ray Wylie Hubbard is 66. Actor Joe Mantegna is 65. Actress Sheila Frazier is 64. Actress Frances Conroy is 59. Musician Andrew Ranken (The Pogues) is 59. Actress Tracy Scoggins is 59. Actor Chris Noth (nohth) is 58. Actress-comedian Whoopi Goldberg is 57. Actor Rex Linn is 56. Actress Caroline Goodall is 53. Actor Neil Flynn is 52. Former NFL quarterback Vinny Testaverde is 49. Rock musician Walter Kibby (Fishbone) is 48. Comedian Jimmy Kimmel is 45. Actor Steve Zahn is 45. Actor Gerard Butler is 43. Writer-activist Ayaan Hirsi Ali is 43. Actor Jordan Bridges is 39. Actress Aisha Hinds is 37. Rock musician Nikolai Fraiture is 34. NBA player Metta World Peace (formerly Ron Artest) is 33. Actress Monique Coleman is 32.