In 1777, Gen. George Washington's troops launched an assault on the British at Germantown, Pa., resulting in heavy American casualties.
In 1822, the 19th president of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes, was born in Delaware, Ohio.
In 1931, the comic strip "Dick Tracy," created by Chester Gould, made its debut.
In 1951, the MGM movie musical "An American in Paris," starring Gene Kelly and Leslie Caron, had its U.S. premiere in New York.
In 1957, the Space Age began as the Soviet Union launched Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite, into orbit.
In 1959, the Soviet Union launched Luna 3, a space probe which transmitted images of the far side of the moon.
In 1961, the animated TV series "The Alvin Show" premiered on CBS.
In 1970, rock singer Janis Joplin, 27, was found dead in her Hollywood hotel room.
In 1976, agriculture secretary Earl Butz resigned in the wake of a controversy over a joke he'd made about blacks.
In 1991, 26 nations, including the United States, signed the Madrid Protocol, which imposed a 50-year ban on oil exploration and mining in Antarctica.
Country singer Leroy Van Dyke is 83. Pro and College Football Hall of Famer Sam Huff is 78. Actor Eddie Applegate is 77. Actress Felicia Farr is 77. Author Jackie Collins is 75. Author Roy Blount Jr. is 71. Author Anne Rice is 71. Actress Lori Saunders ("Petticoat Junction”) is 71. Baseball manager Tony La Russa is 68. Actor Clifton Davis is 67. The former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Adm. Mike Mullen, is 66. Actress Susan Sarandon is 66. Blues musician Duke Robillard is 63. Playwright Lee Blessing is 62. Actor Armand Assante is 62. Actor Alan Rosenberg is 62. Actor Bill Fagerbakke (FAY’-guhr-bah-kee) is 55. Producer Russell Simmons is 55. Musician Chris Lowe (The Pet Shop Boys) is 53. Country musician Gregg "Hobie” Hubbard (Sawyer Brown) is 52. Actor David W. Harper is 51. Singer Jon Secada is 51. TV personality John Melendez is 47. Actor Liev Schreiber is 44. Actor Abraham Benrubi is 42. Country singer-musician Heidi Newfield is 41. Actress Alicia (ah-LEE’-see-ah) Silverstone is 36. Actor Phillip Glasser is 34. Rock singer-musician Marc Roberge (O.A.R.) is 34. Actress Rachael Leigh Cook is 33. Actor Jimmy Workman is 32. Rhythm-and-blues singer Jessica Benson (3lw) is 25. Actor Michael Charles Roman is 25. Figure skater Kimmie Meisner is 23.